Monday, February 24, 2020

Italy's Cultural Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Italy's Cultural - Research Paper Example Italian society highly values individuality and is comfortable interacting with individuals in their personal capacity rather than as representatives of a company. Hence, it is always advisable that sales letters prominently display the name of the person who is sending the letter rather than a faceless designation. But it must be remembered that however important personal relations might be to strike a successful business deal, such relations take a long time to develop and need interactions over long periods of time. So, it might be necessary to write several letters before one can expect any sort of response from an Italian company (Gorrill, 2005). Italian companies have strict norms of hierarchy and almost all business decisions are generally taken by the top management. Our company solicits business outsourcing which is most certainly a very vital decision for any form of business. Thus, it is only natural that the topmost managers of a company will come to a decision after a lot of thought and numerous interactions among themselves and with our company representatives. This is a long drawn out process and polite patience will be the key to success in such a scenario. Any quick decisions from prospective clients or quick closing of a deal with a new client is usually not possible in Italy. The situation is made even more critical by a general sense of lethargy about taking any type of decision that permeates all forms of bureaucracy in Italy (Priest, 2008). Italian culture accords tremendous respect to positions of authority and the power that goes with it and also the age of the person wielding that authority. White hair over black and experience over exuberance of youth is always given more importance in Italy. Therefore, all sales letters should be signed by the highest authority available simply to provide an accentuated sense of seriousness and urgency to the whole issue. Keeping in mind Italian

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Royal Dutch Shell Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Royal Dutch Shell - Assignment Example Royal Dutch Shell is a trend setter in innovation. From a large, but weak and mediocre company to an innovative multinational, now being 2nd largest in revenue and highest in profits (Rijnbach), and with services in more than 90 countries, Shell has definitely revolutionized the concept of Energy Business. Shell uses multi innovation practices to enhance its innovative tendencies and maintain its name as a brand in the energy business. It has a Projects & Technology organization which heads research into different technological aspects for Shell’s Products and services, and aims at providing solutions for the technological hurdles faced by the upstream and downstream product organizations (shell). Like any organization, the Innovation Structure at Shell has its strong and weak aspects. Strengths of Innovation Management Structure The innovational structure at Shell manifests strengths not only aimed at energy but also at the well being of the Planet, its customers, and employe es. Here is a look at the strengths of Shell’s innovation management structure. 1. ... The management at Shell is not only an advocate of change but also takes initiative in this regard, by all means possible. Special departments have been constructed, to research and propose new avenues of change. The senior management is involved in activities that show risk taking tendencies, an important characteristic of innovation; and also try to bring together groups and people that brainstorm (Ruth) and introduce new ideas and concepts. The Shell Australian Innovation Challenge is one of such attempts made by Shell. It is a joint venture of The Australian and Shell. The challenge allows you to enter whether you are a scientist or not. There is also a category of backyard innovation, which is open to general public, and has prize money of $10, 000 (The Australian). 2. Scenario Planning Strategy Shell has been following its innovation strategy for the past 40 years. Shell utilizes scenario planning in its aim to tackle the energy problems of tomorrow. It first implemented the sa id strategy during the 1970’s oil shock (Rijnbach). With the uncertainty of future growing with every passing day, scenario planning is a strong way to devise strategy. The world is faced with resource, market, organization, and technical uncertainty, the proper management of which leads to radical innovation (O’Connor). Scenario planning refers to the orchestration of probable certain scenarios in the future result from social, economical and political factors (Rijnbach). Shell has a Scenarios Team, which has six members. These members look into different versions of the plausible future (Shell). They do not predict future, rather analyzing different facts, create plausible future scenarios taking place between now and 2050 (Mainwaring). Scenario

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

English as the official language of the U.S. Essay Example for Free

English as the official language of the U.S. Essay The English language has already been established as the official language in 28 States; this would beg the question, what made these States pass such an Act, especially since the Courts already designated such a law as being unconstitutional and infringing upon the First Amendment speech rights (Feder, 12). This question will be addressed throughout the paper, which will first consider the legal proceedings that have occurred thus far for this ‘Official English’ movement. The finding of this paper is self-evident in that the objections to this movement have been rendered invalid, largely due to a lack of irrefutable arguments as the paper will demonstrate. The numerous advantages that will be highlighted will argue for, and show, the benefit to the nation – to both the majority as well as the minorities – of making English the official language of the U. S. U. S. Legislature As of the publishing of the CRS Report in 2007, 28 states in the United States have declared English as the official language in their state constitutions. On the flip side, the U. S. Constitution has enacted several laws such as the Voting Rights Act, the Civil Rights Act, and the Equal Educational Opportunities Act in an effort to protect the language rights of the country’s minorities. These Acts authorize, amongst others, the use of voting materials in states and political subdivisions, with instructions in two languages at the same time, as well the use of languages other than English, when deemed essential, to provide effective and efficient public and private services. The U. S. Congress initiated its effort towards the Official English movement in 1984 with ‘The English Language Amendment’ that was proposed for the Constitution, and it culminated when ‘The Language in Government Act’ passed the House in 1996, but failed to do so in the Senate. Amendments to ‘The Language in Government Act’ were later introduced, with the Inhofe Amendment passing in the 109th Congress which affirmed English as the ‘national language’, and later as the unifying language of the U. S. ; at the same time, ensuring the rights of minorities (Feder, 4). Consequent to Amendments that were later introduced, the passage of such Legislature would now largely be a symbolic one with negligible or zero actual effect on the inhabitants of the country, with regards to the legal aspects. This is largely because â€Å"†¦ an affirmation by the Congress of the central place of English in our national life and culture †¦ would not, of its own force, require or prohibit any particular action or policy by the government or private persons. Nor would it, without more, imply the repeal or modification of existing federal or state laws and regulations sanctioning the use of non-English for various purposes,† as stated in Feder, 4-5. Benefits The basic principle upon which the proponents of this movement rest their reason for making English the official language of the United States is that it serves to create a bond of unity. While this bond can be used in order to address any issues through more effective communication between the relevant parties, it also does not rob anyone of their heritage. As stated by Adams, 111, â€Å"All languages and cultures are precious in our history and are to be preserved and maintained. These are not, however, public responsibilities. † Parsimonious equity is another, much touted reason for the movement. Where equity states that all judicial hearings should allow a defendant the right to be heard in the language (s)he is most conversant and comfortable with so as to permit the population to be served by the government. Parsimonious equity, on the other hand, maintains that in order to ensure that the government is not bogged down under administrative costs of ensuring an interpreter for each individual need, an official language must be recognized that will ensure that all legal and government related proceedings be dealt with in English. Such a system remains equitable, as well as, limits the costs associated with such activities (Fishman, 59). With regards to the ‘language-rights’ argument it must be noted that while protecting the rights of minorities in of itself is a sufficiently altruistic and, in the case of the U. S. , required task of the government, it must be ensured that the majority not be discriminated against either. Such a paradox would result in the formation of extreme political parties that would effectively shut out the minorities, due to their large, and united, numbers. In light of this argument, the proponents stress that by officiating the role of the English speaking majority in the United States the government will preclude the establishment of such highly biased and extreme parties, and maintain the unity and equity of the nation. Therefore, while it may be historically justified for minorities to seek redress for past acts of subjugation, as usually happens with minorities, and oppose the majority, it would be more I keeping with the â€Å"interest of [the] linguistic minorities to seek a balance,† as stated by Joseph, 62. To an extent it seems understandable that the minorities might feel as if they are being presented with a raw deal, but when the minorities themselves start supporting the cause for making English the official language this argument against the movement is rendered void, and is in fact turned into another reason for supporting the movement. Such a case was witnessed in Alabama, where the black-majority counties voted for the movement by a significant margin (Tatalovich, 244). Learning from Canada Looking at the northern neighbor of the United States, proponents of the movement have found several examples that corroborate their stand of maintaining a single official language for the country. The numerous political conflicts that Canada has faced over its bilingual official languages status have merely served to show how not to operate in one’s own country, in addition to clearly distinguishing the effect of considering the language issue as irrelevant and trivial. As stated by Ricento, 37, â€Å"the disconcerting strength gathered by separatism in Canada contains a lesson for the United States and its approach to bilingual education. † In trying to placate a larger amount of people by using its dual official language system, Canada has only shown to its more powerful neighbor how it is sometimes in the interest of the minorities to ignore their protests and support the decision of the majority. By catering to the Quebec speaking individuals in their country Canada has given them the right to lose out on greater economic benefits as shown by the research conducted by Li, 135-136: the effect of the use of an official language is signified by the â€Å"†¦$911 [male earnings] above the mean even after controlling for other variables,† and similarly, in the U. S. (Zavodny, 449). Conclusion The English language is the language of the majority as far as the U. S is concerned. There has been a movement towards making it the official language of the country in addition to it being so in over half the States already. However, this movement has subsequently led to the minorities crying foul over the perceived loss of their rights and the perceived inequitable behavior that they expect. The proponents of this movement, on the other hand, cite the greater cause of national unity, as well as that of parsimonious equity to vie with the concern of future lost income of minorities. It is the duty of the Government to now realize the potential benefits that will result in letting Acts based on making English the official Language through Congress. Especially since the greatest objection of minority language rights and perceived subjugation by the majority has been proven to be baseless in light of the Alabama vote. The remaining minorities should seek to overcome their emotional attachment to their original heritage, and understand that this movement will not necessarily threaten their roots; instead, it will result in greater opportunities for them through a more equitable treatment at court and business. Beyond these realizations, the government should initiate a budget towards facilitating the teaching of English to immigrants who cannot afford to learn it through their own devices. This is in light of the view that current instructions for the English language, in the United States, are inadequate to prepare them for their future life in the country (Citrin, 108). With Canada serving as an example of the effects of having more than one official language, the United States can ensure that it does not fall into the same trap by creating the equivalent Spanish-speaking enclaves in their country. Economically, politically, and culturally, having only English as the official language will help deal with a lot of problems along these facets of life that will prove to, over time, strengthen the role of equality in the society – a value that is immensely appreciated in the current era, especially in these neck of the woods. Eventually this movement will succeed, because it not only enjoys widespread support from the majority and a few minorities of the U. S. , but it has also managed to secure enough political support behind it to make it a key bill: one that is presented to the Congress in almost every sitting since the mid-1890’s. Works Cited Adams, K. L. Brink, D. T. Perspectives on Official English: The Campaign for English as the Official Language of the USA. Walter de Gruyter. Fishman, J. A. The Rise and Fall of the Ethnic Revival: Perspectives on Language and Ethnicity. Walter de Gruyter. (1985). Joseph, J. E. Language and Politics. Edinburgh University Press. (2006). Ricento, T. Burnaby, B. Language and Politics in the United States and Canada. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (1998). Tatalovich, R. Nativism Reborn? : The Official English Language Movement and the American States. University Press of Kentucky. (1995). Citrin, J. â€Å"Language politics and American identity. † Public Interest. (1990): p96-109. Feder, J. â€Å"English as the Official Language of the United States: Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress. † CRS Report for Congress. (January 25, 2007): pp18. Li, P. S. â€Å"The Economics of Minority Language Identity. † Canadian Ethnic Studies. (2001):

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

I Never Attended a Traditional School :: Personal Narrative Writing

I Never Attended a Traditional School My schooling was never anything near normal. I never went to normal school or what everyone would call traditional school with a curriculum for any length of time. It is not uncommon now to meet home-schooled children or hear of how home-schooled children participate with traditionally schooled children, but in my time, people would look at me strangely if I were not in school. "Honey, why aren't you in school?" was the dreaded question. I could almost feel truant officers watching me in the shadows while I answered back. In my mind, truant officers were like policemen who would put bad children in jail and feed them only bread and water. "We just moved... I will be in the local school soon," I would answer. After the interrogation I would hang my head in shame. I felt like a social outcast, too old for preschool, and yet too young to be a school dropout. I would dig my heels into the ground, staring at my shiny red shoes and my white lacy socks. I wanted to disappear from the face of the earth by somehow digging myself into a deep hole in the ground. My younger sister was spared the humiliation since she was still an infant and was of preschool age when we finally stopped our travels and settled into a neighborhood for a while. "Mummy, why can't I just go to school like everyone else?" I would ask her in dismay after those dreaded incidents. My world felt gray and a funny unhappy feeling would sink into my stomach. My mother would turn her beautiful face towards me, the perfect socialite, the model body, with the presence of an actress. She was oblivious to my distress. I knew she would laugh off my fears just as she laughed off her own most of her life. "We move too much...and you are very's not common to see the world as you do. It's much better that I take you when you're still little and can catch up with school. Many children would really envy you. You get enough of an education by traveling with me," she would answer. I often wondered why I could not be as cool and collected as the beautiful stranger who was my own mother. Instead, I was shy and lacked much self-esteem. I was plagued by fears and a mouth that would button itself in the most critical moments.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Anna Karenina

Marital infidelity is condemned by law, religion and society in almost any country, more so in late 19th century Russia. In our modern culture as well, the unfaithful woman gets greater censure than the man who is guilty of it. This is also the case in Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina. Oblonsky (Stiva) cheats on his wife, not once but twice, but he gets no more than a gentle reprimand. Anna Karenina, on the other hand, earns severe contempt from society for her adulterous liaison with the dashing Count Vronsky. On the surface, Tolstoy himself must have realized the gravity of her crime and to appease the moralists of his day he had to make her pay for it: she commits suicide, crushed beneath an oncoming train. But an in-depth comparison of Stiva’s and Anna’s infidelities, seen in the light of Tolstoyan thought, would suggest the author did not intend to condemn Anna’s deed alone, but the entire society of his day for its hypocrisy, its double standard of morality. Discussing the inequality of rights in marriage between men and women, Pestsov acknowledged that â€Å"the inequality in marriage†¦lay in the fact that the infidelity of the wife and the infidelity of the husband are punished unequally, both by the law and by public opinion. † (4. 12). Conservative Russia and even contemporary society would tend to look at Stiva with greater understanding and even approval. This emerges after a brief comparison between him and Anna vis-a-vis their adulterous affairs. Oblonsky (Stiva) intended to keep his infidelities a secret; Dolly found out about his affair with the French governess only by his carelessness. In contrast, Anna flirted openly with Vronsky despite knowing Kitty was in love with him and was waiting for his proposal. While it was not her fault that Vronsky followed her in the train, letting other people into the budding romance, she could have observed some degree of decorum or discreetness in his affair with the handsome officer, but she did not. The mere fact that Anna and Vronsky remained talking to each other at the little table even in the presence of her husband, at the beginning of their romance, was considered by the circle of guests present â€Å"indecorous. (2. 7). Seemingly unable to comprehend, like Vronsky, the gravity of their crime, she opted to ignore the judgment of society, including the elite of St. Petersburg where â€Å"everyone knows everyone else, everyone even visits everyone else† as well as of Moscow who frowned on such dalliances in contravention of the established morals of the day. (2. 4). Karenin became furious only when, against his insi stence that she at least observe propriety and decorum, she allowed her lover to visit her at their home (2. 22). Alexey, Anna’s husband, is depicted as the suffering party. He is pictured as one who is without vices and all virtue, although Anna hates him for it. He refuses to be jealous when his wife is besieged with other men. Giving her all the benefit of the doubt during their marriage, and before the affair, Alexey believed a gentleman was not supposed to go down in fits of jealousy, in reference to a woman’s exposure to temptations from other men, since he â€Å"could never lower her and himself by jealousy. † (1. 6). Despite his initial hatred at Anna for leaving him and her son, he readily forgave her when he thought she was about to die (4. 17). Then as now, people dismissed a man’s extramarital affairs in consideration of his virile nature. Oblonsky thought he could not be faulted for fooling around as he was still young and good-looking, while his wife was already past her prime. He was prone to temptation, and therefore could not be easily faulted for succumbing to earthly temptations. He thought his trysts with other women were but innocent, harmless pursuits. In contrast, Anna is severely judged for breaking her marital vows. It ignores as of no moment that fact that she married a man she did not love, who was twenty years older and made her life inexplicably miserable. She is condemned because of the perception that she had no excuse for wanting the affections of another, no matter how infatuated she may be. She openly flirted with Vronsky, knowing Kitty was in love with him and awaiting his proposal. To the moral guardians of her day, Anna Karenina was irresponsible, being unable to realize the consequences of her actions. Oblonsky remains his cheerful, confident self despite his marital troubles, even committing another infidelity with a pretty dancing girl despite his earlier avowal of regret, while Anna is physically and mentally devastated on account of her affair with Vronsky. Stiva considered his flings a mere pastime to escape the ennui of his everyday life, never seriously giving them much thought. To him, one â€Å"can be fond of new rolls when one has had one’s rations of bread. † He tells Levin, who is unconvinced, it really â€Å"does so little harm to anyone, and gives oneself so much pleasure. † He said he did not â€Å"count life as life without love. (2. 14). In his mind, Stiva did not rue the fact that he was no longer in love with his wife; his only regret, believing she was secretly aware of his dalliances but shut her eyes to them, was not being able to hide it from her. He was the type who relished his pleasures. He thought: â€Å"There’s something com mon, vulgar, in flirting with one’s governess. But what a governess! † (1. 2). For Stiva, as with many other men (or even society in general), a sin is not to be ashamed of as long as you maintain a sense of decorum or do it discreetly, careful about the sensibilities of other people who might be offended. Men are even expected to engage in such pursuits, provided they do not compromise their honor or make a fool of themselves before others. Such was the reaction of Vronsky’s mother, the countess, who thought that nothing â€Å"gave such a finishing touch to a brilliant man as a liaison in the highest society. † (2. 18). She was also pleased it was Anna Karenina who was involved with her son. To her, the matter became vexing only when she realized that their passion might lead him â€Å"into imprudence† and displease certain connections in high society. Vronsky’s brother shared the sentiment of the countess: He did not distinguish what sort of love his (Vronsky’s) might be†¦(he kept a ballet girl himself, though he was the father of a family, so he was lenient in these matters), but he knew that this love affair was viewed with displeasure by those whom it was necessary to please, and therefore he did not approve of his brother’s conduct. (2. 18). Of judgment by society, distinction should be made. There is a circle composed of the fashionable world, to which Anna was attached, that rendered no harsh judgment of her. Vronsky was conscious of the fact that he ran no risk of being ridiculous in the eyes of Betsy or any other fashionable people. He was very well aware that in their eyes the position of an unsuccessful lover†¦might be ridiculous. But the position of a man pursuing a married woman, regardless of everything, staking his life on drawing her into adultery, has something fine and grand about it, and can never be ridiculous†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (4. 4. ). (? ) Ther e was, however, another circle, composed of â€Å"elderly, ugly, benevolent, and godly women†, known as the â€Å"conscience of Petersburg Society† at the center of which was the Countess Lidia Ivanovna. Unlike the first circle which delighted in scandals and sympathized with the lovers, this particular group saw nothing but the immorality of Anna’s affair with the count. The first circle tended to condone the lovers, seeing in them reflected their own human weaknesses. The second circle condemned it, finding the scandal loathsome in the eyes of man and God. Unlike his brother Stiva, Anna totally turned her back on her family to make a new life for herself, not in pursuit of temporary pleasure or thrill as Stiva is wont to do, but in obedience to the dictates of her heart, utterly disregarding convention. Both Anna and her brother found it difficult to fathom the depth of their sins. Stiva believed himself quite powerless in the face of a woman â€Å"who loves him but who seeks nothing in return. † (1. 2). But whereas Stiva could not repent of his sins because they gave him so much pleasure, Anna and Vronsky cared not at all on how they shall be judged by society because of their total devotion for each other, finding that â€Å"the passion that united them was so intense that they were both oblivious of everything else but their love. †(2. 21). People might be gentler to Oblonsky because he immediately sought forgiveness from his wife when she discovered the affair; it did not once occur to him to forsake his family. As Anna points out to Dolly, men who commit such mistakes consider their families sacred. They may commit indiscretions but they would never seriously consider abandoning their home. â€Å"Somehow or other these women are still looked on with contempt by them, and do not touch on their feeling for their family,† observed Anna, unaware that she too would be judged severely in her future affair. They draw a sort of line that can’t be crossed between them and their families. † (1. 4). On the other hand, Anna left her husband to live with Vronsky without the formalities of divorce, earning the bitter ire of society and the church. By tradition, Anna’s infidelity to his husband Karenin is deemed more contemptuous in view of the attendant biases, tenets, prejudices and beliefs surrounding t heir milieu. Infidelity marked the woman as guilty of a capital crime. Vronsky’s mother judged her â€Å"a bad woman,† concluding that her desperate passions were all â€Å"to show herself something out of the way. The countess condemns her for completely ruining the life of his son and her husband, that â€Å"her very death was the death of a vile woman, of no religious feeling. †(8. 4). Then, a man’s pride was considered above all considerations, and an offended spouse was expected to challenge to a duel the man who stained his honor. On the other hand, the unfaithful husband receives only a mild censure. After all, society is not disturbed by his dalliances, so long as these are kept discreet and he does not abandon or neglect his own family. The unwritten dictum of the day, as now, was: Do what you have to do, but be discreet about it. We find that there is very little distinction between the adulteries of Stiva and Anna Karenina. Anna’s crime is deemed, at first blush, more reproachable, but we tend to understand her actuations, her emotions, upon deeper inquiry into her life. A young charming woman, married to an older man whom she detested for his virtues, is fair game to a dashing suitor. Never having been in love, she can not be faulted that easily considering her passionate nature, to fall madly in love while forgetting its possible repercussions. Such was the enormity of their love that they heeded not the probing and accusing eyes of society, religion, and the law. At least, the offenders commited everything in the name of their love for each other, and this at least, to my view, mitigates their crime. Of Stiva’s dalliances he has no saving grace. Oblonsky engages in it purely for the pleasure it brings, not because he is forced by the strength of his emotions. He has the temerity to seek forgiveness when his sole regret was not at hurting his wife but in having been so careless that his letter to his mistress was found. He even used Dolly’s own money to pay off his debts. Tolstoy depicts the suffering of the man wronged, but he also pictures the offender in a sympathetic light. Vronsky, for all his faults, undergoes suffering because of his forbidden love for Anna; he shoots himself in an attempted suicide. He speaks to no one for six months after Anna’s death, and refuses to eat unless forced to. He volunteers to serve in war, expecting never to return. (8. 4). Stiva looks upon him as a hero and an old friend. (8. 2). In War and Peace, Tolstoy tells of the suffering of Pierre Bezukhov on account of his wife’s adulterous affair with Dolokhov, whom Pierre challenges and wounds in a duel. Tolstoy then depicts Dolokhov, despite his flaw, as â€Å"the most affectionate of sons and brothers. (4. 5). We condemn the woman, but isn’t the man who seduces the wife of another, by the very definition of law and the Commandments, also an adulterer? The protagonists in Tolstoy’s novels are handsome and dashing counts, princes, and nobles, the unfaithful wives charming and beautiful countesses and women of stature in society, not ungainly rogu es and common women. He makes Anna Karenina a most charming, pretty, intelligent, educated woman. That she could have fallen low in the eyes of society makes one wonder, for it is commonly believed only ordinary mortals are susceptible to moral corruption. Other than his pre-occupation with the upper class, to which he himself belonged, perhaps Tolstoy was driving home a message: infidelity is not confined to class or breeding; all human beings are vulnerable to human frailty and error. By focusing on the infidelities of Stiva and Anna, contrasting them with each other, Tolstoy could have been presenting to us his view of the elite of Russian society and their morals, depicted in all their hypocrisy and nakedness despite the glamour and elegance of St. Petersburg and the other cosmopolitan cities where they lived. When we consider the infidelity of Anna Karenina and Count Vronsky against the unfolding of their mutual affection, we come to slowly understand that it would appear to have been foreordained, aided by their temperament and character, their passion and yearning for life, other than a predisposition to commit evil. Vronsky perceives that his affair with Anna had drawn so much condemnation from society because they could not understand it. Vronsky believed that if it were some common affair, people would have cared less. But society became annoyed because it could not comprehend his immense love for her, that the woman is â€Å"dearer to [him] than life. † (2. 21). While the young men envied him, â€Å"the greater number of the young women, who envied Anna and had long been weary of hearing her called virtuous, rejoiced at the fulfillment of their predictions, and were only waiting for a turn in public opinion to fall upon her with all the weight of their scorn. † (2. 18). Despite her failings, Anna refuses to run away with Vronsky as she did not want to part from her son, terrified of his future attitude when he shall realize his mother had abandoned his father for another man (2. 23). Again, this softens our attitude towards Anna in the same way perhaps, that Dolly warms up to her upon sensing that she, too, has her own weaknesses. Stiva, on the other hand, appears outwardly kind and genial and considerate to all persons, but his remorseless cheating ought to be condemned the greater, if we are to judge him by the severity with which we judge Anna Karenina. A person who repents does not necessarily have to wear sackcloth and ashes, but he should at least resolve to cease completely from doing that which hurt others. If he insists that he is incapable of repentance, why should he not be guilty of society’s condemnation? Anna Karenina, in this regard, would appear to be an indictment of society as a whole, showing the hypocrisy of those who find mirth and satisfaction in every scandal, assured that they are not lacking in company. It reveals a community of educated, fashionable, religious, noble persons who cannot stand the unfaithfulness of a woman completely immersed in his love while ignoring the acts of a man who makes adultery nothing but a pleasurable game. Perhaps Tolstoy was asking us not to judge, for by judging others, as Jesus warned, we shall likewise be judged. WORKS CITED Tolstoy, Leo. â€Å"Anna Karenina†. 22 February 2007. —â€Å"War and Peace†. 26 February 2007.    Anna Karenina The novel opened up to an implication of the strife in the Oblonsky household. There was an atmosphere of confusion as everyone was concerned about the discovered sexual affair of the Master of the house with the French governess. The wife of Prince Arkadyevitch Oblonsky (Stiva) did not leave her room and it showed how the situation evident with how everything has been going wrong.Examples were given to prove establish the confusion and the mess of the situation like the children going wild all over the house, how the house helpers were quarrelling, the man-cook quitting his job and others who were threatening to do so.Stiva woke up on the leather-covered sofa in his study without having to realize that he was not sleeping with his wife until he reached for his dressing gown that was not where it should have been, within arm’s reach of their bed. After which, he remembered his current predicament. The setting in this scene how a marital dispute can affect so many people and ho w more marital disputes can stir the course of the following events in the novel.Kitty’s big night, the ball, was narrated to be a dream-like event where she was to go down a â€Å"great staircase, flooded with light and lined with flowers and footmen in powder and red coats (Tolstoy Part 1, Chapter 9).† The sound of the orchestra can be heard. Women and men were wonderfully dressed, expensive fabrics and vibrant colors filled the ballroom as people started to waltz on the dance floor.This shows how Kitty, at the start of the novel was naà ¯ve in a way as she saw so much romance in the night and how she loved social gatherings like that night’s ball. The setting described the vibrancy and excitement Kitty felt before she found out that Vronsky, the man she loved, fell in love with Anna, the woman she adored.The description of the ballroom and the atmosphere was further elaborated with describing how perfect everything was with Kitty, from her hair, to her dress to her shoes, only to come to a huge turning point wherein she sees Vronsky’s affection for another woman.   The description of how exquisite Anna looked that night, added much weight to the twist that was about to take place, it made Vronsky’s admiration for Anna like a harder slap on Kitty’s face.ThemeThe major theme in the novel was about society and family. The second part of the novel gave much emphasis to solidifying this theme through different instances wherein Anna was reprimanded or placed in a bad light because of a foreseen case of infidelity.   It was important for families to stay together, more so during their time as women who are divorced loose a lot of ground in society, while the men do not loose as much.There was one instance wherein the text showed how Anna had three sets of friends in the Petersburg society.   There are those who belonged to the circle of her husband’s colleagues that seems to serve merely as acquaintances wit h the family.Another set was concerning the friends in Countess Lydia Ivanovna’s circle that Anna soon disliked greatly and the last set was one with Princess Betsy Tverskaya who was the wife of her cousin.   Each set of friend offered much of their opinions about how Anna changed and often gossiped about her and her husband Karenin.Alexey Alexandrovitch, Anna’s husband, only saw fit to talk to her wife about her behavior with another man upon realizing that others are already gossiping about them. The confrontation was indifferent for both of them and their relationship changed but they stayed together to avoid any societal conflicts.When Anna and Vronsky made love, it was obvious that Anna was distraught as to the consequences of her actions with society and how it will affect his family, even her son.When Vronsky fell of his horse during a race, Anna could not contain her emotions in public. This had shown her improper affection for Vronsky.   She cried as she w as so worried about him. Instead of being jealous about Anna’s obvious feelings for another man, Karenin simply warned her to be careful about how she reacts in public and showed how he valued his social stature more than he did his actual relationship with his wife.Even after Anna admitted his relationship with Vronsky, Karenin was more preoccupied with protecting his honor. During that time, it has established how people were more concerned about the opinions of society and how they maintain a clean image in public.   

Saturday, December 28, 2019

USS Oriskany CV-34 US NavyAircraft Carrier

Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: New York Naval ShipyardLaid Down: May 1, 1944Launched: October 13, 1945Commissioned: September 25, 1950Fate: Sunk as an artificial reef in 2006 Specifications Displacement: 30,800 tonsLength: 904 ft.Beam: 129 ft.Draft: 30 ft., 6 in.Propulsion: 8 Ãâ€" boilers, 4 Westinghouse geared turbines, 4 shaftsSpeed: 33 knotsRange: 20,000 miles at 15 knotsComplement: 2,600 men Aircraft 90-100 aircraft USS Oriskany (CV-34) Construction Laid down at the New York Naval Shipyard on May 1, 1944, USS Oriskany (CV-34) was intended to be a long-hull Essex-class aircraft carrier. Named for the 1777 Battle of Oriskany which was fought during the American Revolution, the carrier was launched on October 13, 1945, with Ida Cannon serving as sponsor. With the end of World War II, work on Oriskany was halted in August 1947 when the vessel was 85% complete. Assessing its needs, the US Navy redesigned Oriskany to serve as the prototype for the new SCB-27 modernization program. This called for the installation of more powerful catapults, stronger elevators, a new island layout, and the addition of blisters to the hull. Many of the upgrades made during the SCB-27 program were intended to allow the carrier to handle the jet aircraft that were coming into service. Completed in 1950, Oriskany was commissioned on September 25 with Captain Percy Lyon in command. Early Deployments Departing New York in December, Oriskany conducted training and shakedown exercises in the Atlantic and Caribbean into early 1951. With these complete, the carrier embarked Carrier Air Group 4 and began a deployment to the Mediterranean with the 6th Fleet that May. Returning in November, Oriskany entered the yard for an overhaul which saw changes to its island, flight deck, and steering system. With the completion of this work in May 1952, the ship received orders to join the Pacific Fleet. Rather than use the Panama Canal, Oriskany sailed around South America and made port calls at Rio de Janeiro, Valparaiso, and Callao. After conducting training exercises near San Diego, Oriskany crossed the Pacific to support United Nations forces during the Korean War. Korea After a port call in Japan, Oriskany joined Task Force 77 off the coast of Korea in October 1952. Commencing airstrikes against enemy targets, the carriers aircraft attacked troop positions, supply lines, and artillery emplacements. In addition, Oriskanys pilots had success in combating Chinese MiG-15 fighters. With the exception of a brief overhaul in Japan, the carrier remained in action until April 22, 1953, when it left the Korean coast and proceeded to San Diego. For its service in the Korean War, Oriskany was awarded two battle stars. Spending the summer in California, the carrier underwent routine upkeep before returning to Korea that September. Operating in the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea, it worked to maintain the uneasy peace which had been established in July. In the Pacific Following another Far East deployment, Oriskany arrived at San Francisco in August 1956. Decommissioned on January 2, 1957, it entered the yard to undergo an SCB-125A modernization. This saw the addition of an angled flight deck, enclosed hurricane bow, steam catapults, and improved elevators. Taking over two years to complete, Oriskany was re-commissioned on March 7, 1959, with Captain James M. Wright in command. After conducting a deployment to the Western Pacific in 1960, Oriskany was overhauled the following year and became the first carrier to receive the US Navys new Naval Tactical Data System. In 1963, Oriskany arrived off the coast of South Vietnam to safeguard American interests following a coup detat which saw President Ngo Dinh Diem deposed. Vietnam War Overhauled at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in 1964, Oriskany conducted refresher training off the West Coast before being directed to sail for the Western Pacific in April 1965. This was in response to the American entry into the Vietnam War. Largely carrying an air wing equipped with LTV F-8A Crusaders and Douglas A4D Skyhawks, Oriskany began combat operations against North Vietnamese targets as part of Operation Rolling Thunder. Over the next several months the carrier operated from either Yankee or Dixie Station depending on the targets to be attacked. Flying over 12,000 combat sorties, Oriskany earned the Navy Unit Commendation for its performance. A Deadly Fire Returning to San Diego in December 1965, Oriskany underwent an overhaul before again steaming for Vietnam. Resuming combat operations in June 1966, the carrier was struck by tragedy later that year. On October 26, a massive fire erupted when a mishandled magnesium parachute flare ignited in the forward flare locker of Hangar Bay 1. This flare led to the explosion of around 700 other flares in the locker. Fire and smoke quickly spread through the forward part of the ship. Though damage control teams were finally able to extinguish the fire, it killed 43 men, many of them pilots, and wounded 38. Sailing to Subic Bay, Philippines, the wounded were removed from Oriskany and the damaged carrier began the voyage back to San Francisco. Back to Vietnam Repaired, Oriskany returned to Vietnam in July 1967. Serving as the flagship of Carrier Division 9, it resumed combat operations from Yankee Station on July 14. On October 26, 1967, one of Oriskanys pilots, Lieutenant Commander John McCain, was shot down over North Vietnam. A future senator and presidential candidate, McCain endured over five years as a prisoner of war. As had become a pattern, Oriskany completed its tour in January 1968 and underwent an overhaul at San Francisco. This complete, it arrived back off Vietnam in May 1969. Operating from Yankee Station, Oriskanys aircraft attacked targets on the Ho Chi Minh Trail as part of Operation Steel Tiger. Flying strike missions through the summer, the carrier sailed for Alameda in November. In dry dock over the winter, Oriskany was upgraded to handle the new LTV A-7 Corsair II attack aircraft. This work complete, Oriskany commenced its fifth Vietnam deployment on May 14, 1970. Continuing attacks on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, the carriers air wing also flew diversionary strikes as part of the Son Tay rescue mission that November. After another overhaul at San Francisco that December, Oriskany departed for its sixth tour off Vietnam. En route, the carrier encountered four Soviet Tupolev TU-95 Bear strategic bombers east of the Philippines. Launching, fighters from Oriskany shadowed the Soviet aircraft as they moved through the area. Completing its deployment in November, the carrier moved through its usual pattern of upkeep in San Francisco before returning to Vietnam in June 1972. Though Oriskany was damaged in a collision with the ammunition ship USS Nitro on June 28, it remained on station and took part in Operation Linebacker. Continuing to hammer enemy targets, the carriers aircraft remained active until January 27, 1973, when the Paris Peace Accords were signed. Retirement After conducting final strikes in Laos in mid-February, Oriskany sailed for Alameda in late March. Refitting, the carrier began a new mission to the Western Pacific which saw it operate in the South China Sea before conducting training in the Indian Ocean. The ship remained in the region until mid-1974. Entering Long Beach Naval Ship Yard in August, work began to overhaul the carrier. Completed in April 1975, Oriskany conducted a final deployment to the Far East later that year. Returning home in March 1976, it was designated for deactivation the following month due to defense budget cuts and its old age. Decommissioned on September 30, 1976, Oriskany was held in reserve at Bremerton, WA until being struck from the Navy List on July 25, 1989. Sold for scrap in 1995, Oriskany was reclaimed by the US Navy two years later as the buyer had made no progress in demolishing the ship. Taken to Beaumont, TX, the US Navy announced in 2004 that the ship would be given to the State of Florida for use as an artificial reef. After extensive environmental remediation to remove toxic substances from the vessel, Oriskany was sunk off the coast of Florida on May 17, 2006. The largest vessel to be used as an artificial reef, the carrier has become popular with recreational divers. Selected Sources NavSource: USS OriskanyOriskany HistoryDANFS: USS  Oriskany  (CV-34)